The dietary supplements industry contains a lot of fraud and incompetence. Here is yet another example:Presence and Quantity of Botanical Ingredients in Sports Supplements
"This case series study examines the accuracy of labels of dietary sports supplements containing botanical ingredients."
Some of the findings:
"...Dietary supplement products were included in this case series if they were labeled as containing 1 of the following ingredients: R vomitoria, methylliberine, turkesterone, halostachine, or octopamine. ...
Twenty-three of 57 products (40%) did not contain a detectable amount of the labeled ingredient. Of the products that contained detectable amounts of the listed ingredient, the actual quantity ranged from 0.02% to 334% of the labeled quantity. Six of 57 products (11%) contained a quantity of the ingredient within 10% of the labeled quantity.
Seven of 57 products (12%) were found to contain at least 1 FDA-prohibited ingredient. Five different FDA-prohibited compounds were found, including 4 synthetic simulants, 1,4-dimethylamylamine, deterenol, octodrine, oxilofrine, and omberacetam. ..."
-- The study lists its limitations (small sample size, small variety of products tested). "It is not known whether the results are generalizable to other botanical ingredients in sports supplements or whether quantities might also vary among batches within a given brand." Still, the findings are concerning (but not surprising).